MS Office applications like Word, Excel usually use your Default Printer and its properties to show a Print Preview. While you may not necessarily have a physical printer (Local/Network) installed, MS Windows 7/8 comes with a built in MS XPS Document writer as a Printer device and it gets selected as Default Printer as long as you have not installed any other printers in your system.
In absence of any printer installed, Print Preview may not work correctly or gives a message 'No Printeres Installed' as reported by OP in this case of Office 2013.
If the Print Spooler service in Windows is stopped for some reasons or in case you delete this default printer and there's no other printer installed on your system, print preview won't work.
As clarified by OP, the Print Spooler service somehow stopped resulting in no printer available. After restarting this service (which usually is configured to auto start with Windows) Print Preview works as expected.
In case you ever accidentally delete MS XPS Document Writer, there are steps to reinstall it from within windows as well.