A clunky partial solution is to connect your phone to a computer over USB and use Chrome devtools to view the list of tabs open on the phone. This seems to get all the tabs, not just the recent ones.
Caveat: Titles and URLs are each truncated to the first 100 characters if they were longer than that. For example here's a tab whose title and URL are truncated to 100 characters:
Research shows natural language benchmarks don't measure AI models' general knowledge well | Venture…
The truncation isn't ideal, but 100 chars of title + 100 chars of URL is often still enough to find the page again in a search engine. The tabs seem to be in roughly the same order as the tab switcher, with occasional exceptions.
Follow https://developer.chrome.com/docs/devtools/remote-debugging/ for the full details of setting up remote devtools, but the high level steps are:
Enable USB Debugging on your Android device.
Go to chrome://inspect#devices in Chrome on your computer.
Ensure the Discover USB Devices checkbox is enabled.
Connect your Android device to your computer via a USB cable.
Accept the Allow USB Debugging prompt on your Android device (if applicable).
Open Chrome on your Android device.
After a few seconds, a list of the titles and URLs of all open websites on your phone should appear in the chrome://inspect#devices tab on your computer. Copy-paste the list to a text file.