I've got a router that is also running a DNS that contains names for machines on my local network. It is set up to forward requests, so for any public machine it will reach out to the DNS provided by my ISP. The router is configured such that it is the primary DNS, and the ISP's DNS is listed as a secondary. I have a couple of machines (the ones with entries in my private DNS) that have static IPs. The other machines, including the Mac that is the subject of this question, get their addresses by DHCP.
Windows machines on this network are working perfectly. They resolve the private names to the machines on my network and also have access to the public internet.
My single Mac laptop is not working. It accesses the public internet with no problem, but it is not hitting my internal DNS to get the internal names. For example, if I do a ping to an internal machine as
I get packets back, but it shows an IP address that corresponds to Hover. (Apparently Hover is putting up a landing page for any sub-domain for which there is no public route.) If I do
however, I get the correct (internal) IP for the machine on my local network.
Finally, if I do ping again but this time force it to use my internal DNS (192.168.1.2),
ping internal.example.com 192.168.1.2
I get response from the correct machine on my local network. This seems to indicate even the "native" approach can do what I want, if it will just use the right DNS.
I've found a lot of articles that talk around this issue, but what I've actually found so far is either out of date or not a complete solution to my problem. What I've cobbled together so far:
- Apple has been changing its methodology for DNS resolution over the course of several OS upgrades, so answers online quickly become dated.
- The Mac has (at least) two DNS resolution schemes running concurrently as of El Capitan. This is related to getting different results from ping and from nslookup, as noted above. The command line utilities that work on the "usual" linux system seem to at least document this on their man pages, usually under a section titled something like "Mac OS X Notice." Unfortunately, it's not clear exactly which utilities use which without checking them one by one. (So far, it looks like nslookup and dig use the linux methodology and ping uses whatever is "native" to Mac OS.)
- It's a (more or less) documented feature of the "native" DNS method that it dynamically chooses which DNS to use. That means, in particular, that the order that appears in windows like the Network control panel or the order that's specified by the router (in my case), are not respected.
- I got some information from the "native" DNS tool with the command
sudo killall -INFO mDNSResponderon the command line. That dumps messages into
/var/log/system.log. From that log message, it appears that my ISP's DNS is listed first within that system. (Again, I note, that it is listed second in the configuration of the router and in the Network control panel. It is also listed second if I run
- I tried flushing the cache on mDNSResponder using
sudo dscacheutil -flushcache; sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder;but that did not help.
- I tried editing the file
com.apple.mDNSResponder.plistas in these instructions (https://www.cnet.com/news/os-x-10-6-3-and-dns-server-priority-changes/), but I was not able to edit the file. (Read-only, even with
sudo vi.) In addition, the file on my system has different content than what's explicitly referenced in those instructions.
In net of all of this, however, I still have a Mac that's not working on a network full of other computers that work great. I could probably take out the ISP's DNS on the router so that it's not even offered, but that feels like a hack. Is there a good fix for this on El Capitan?
Sorry if this has already been answered. (I feel like it must be somewhere!) I've dug around on and off most of the day and haven't hit a solution on El Capitan so far.