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I am running a brand new WD Black 3TB. It is formatted as ext4 filesystem and used with Banana Pi card. Actually I am having two such setups, but only one gives me any problems.

The second Pi makes a backup of the first Pi over the network, and at some unspecified times the following thing appears in logs (pasted below), HDD remounts as read-only.

What can it be? I have checked that the disk does not overheat.

 [190626.735497] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Unhandled error code
 [190626.737438] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda]  Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_TIMEOUT
 [190626.744266] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] CDB: Write(10): 2a 00 ae 86 c7 68 00 04 00 00

(5 more entries like above) 

 [190626.891894] end_request: I/O error, dev sda, sector 2928073576
 [190626.911114] Aborting journal on device sda1-8.
 [190637.806865] EXT4-fs error (device sda1): ext4_journal_start_sb:328: Detected aborted journal
 [190637.822819] EXT4-fs (sda1): Remounting filesystem read-only
 [218467.289894] EXT4-fs error (device sda1): ext4_lookup:1058: inode #35397701: comm updatedb.mlocat: deleted inode referenced: 41026079
 [218467.403128] EXT4-fs error (device sda1): ext4_lookup:1058: inode #35397701: comm updatedb.mlocat: deleted inode referenced: 41026080
 [218469.065458] EXT4-fs error (device sda1): ext4_lookup:1058: inode #39584288: comm updatedb.mlocat: deleted inode referenced: 41026078

my disk smart status appears clean:

 ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
   1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x002f   100   253   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
   3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0027   253   253   021    Pre-fail  Always       -       2050
   4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       53
   5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   200   200   140    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
   7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x002e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
   9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   098   098   000    Old_age   Always       -       1513
  10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0032   100   253   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0032   100   253   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       52
  16 Unknown_Attribute       0x0022   052   148   000    Old_age   Always       -       927983205287
 192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       43
 193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       40
 194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   117   112   000    Old_age   Always       -       35
 196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
 197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0032   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
 198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0030   200   200   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
 199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0032   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
 200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x0008   200   200   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0

I will have take care of spinning down the disk when not active.... The only activity the disk does is doing backup for 10 minutes every night. It has not been written over even once.

output of hdparm -I /dev/sda reads:

 /dev/sda:

 ATA device, with non-removable media
    Model Number:       WDC WD3003FZEX-00Z4SA0                  
    Serial Number:      WD-WMC130******
    Firmware Revision:  01.01A01
    Transport:          Serial, SATA 1.0a, SATA II Extensions, SATA Rev 2.5, SATA Rev 2.6, SATA Rev 3.0
 Standards:
    Supported: 9 8 7 6 5 
    Likely used: 9
 Configuration:
    Logical     max current
    cylinders   16383   16383
    heads       16  16
    sectors/track   63  63
    --
    CHS current addressable sectors:   16514064
    LBA    user addressable sectors:  268435455
    LBA48  user addressable sectors: 5860533168
    Logical  Sector size:                   512 bytes
    Physical Sector size:                  4096 bytes
    Logical Sector-0 offset:                  0 bytes
    device size with M = 1024*1024:     2861588 MBytes
    device size with M = 1000*1000:     3000592 MBytes (3000 GB)
    cache/buffer size  = unknown
    Nominal Media Rotation Rate: 7200
 Capabilities:
    LBA, IORDY(can be disabled)
    Queue depth: 32
    Standby timer values: spec'd by Standard, with device specific minimum
    R/W multiple sector transfer: Max = 16  Current = 0
    DMA: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6 
         Cycle time: min=120ns recommended=120ns
    PIO: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4 
         Cycle time: no flow control=120ns  IORDY flow control=120ns
 Commands/features:
    Enabled Supported:
       *    SMART feature set
            Security Mode feature set
       *    Power Management feature set
       *    Write cache
       *    Look-ahead
       *    Host Protected Area feature set
       *    WRITE_BUFFER command
       *    READ_BUFFER command
       *    NOP cmd
       *    DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE
            Power-Up In Standby feature set
       *    SET_FEATURES required to spinup after power up
            SET_MAX security extension
       *    48-bit Address feature set
       *    Mandatory FLUSH_CACHE
       *    FLUSH_CACHE_EXT
       *    SMART error logging
       *    SMART self-test
       *    General Purpose Logging feature set
       *    64-bit World wide name
       *    {READ,WRITE}_DMA_EXT_GPL commands
       *    Segmented DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE
       *    Gen1 signaling speed (1.5Gb/s)
       *    Gen2 signaling speed (3.0Gb/s)
       *    Gen3 signaling speed (6.0Gb/s)
       *    Native Command Queueing (NCQ)
       *    Host-initiated interface power management
       *    Phy event counters
       *    NCQ priority information
       *    READ_LOG_DMA_EXT equivalent to READ_LOG_EXT
            DMA Setup Auto-Activate optimization
       *    Software settings preservation
       *    SMART Command Transport (SCT) feature set
       *    SCT Write Same (AC2)
       *    SCT Features Control (AC4)
       *    SCT Data Tables (AC5)
            unknown 206[12] (vendor specific)
            unknown 206[13] (vendor specific)
            unknown 206[14] (vendor specific)
 Security: 
    Master password revision code = 65534
        supported
    not enabled
    not locked
    not frozen
    not expired: security count
        supported: enhanced erase
    352min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 352min for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 
 Logical Unit WWN Device Identifier: ******
    NAA     : 5
    IEEE OUI    : ******
    Unique ID   : ******
 Checksum: correct

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