Connecting passive extenders in series is a very bad idea.
In USB 2.0, the length of cable is limited by signal degradation along differential twisted-pair cable. USB 2.0 does not have any sophistication of USB 3.0 as signal pre-emphasis and adaptive equalization of receivers during link training, and relies on plain quality of transmission line between link partners.
The quality of line deteriorates due (a) frequency-dependent losses (attenuation of high-frequency edges), and (b) inter-symbol interference coming from multiple reflections from line imperfections. Even a uniform twisted differential line has certain degree of imperfections, so the end-of line accumulates significant jitter, and receivers fail to decode the data stream and recover embedded clock.
Now, consider how USB connectors are made. First, the pair of mated connectors (receptacle-plug) has quite different geometry, and impedance matching is not always good. Then, the connectors are not designed for automated assembly. The cable must be cut, wire spread out to fit connector spacing, and then soldered by hand. Most of the cable assemblies inside the connectors moldings are horrible from impedance matching standpoint. So when you connect a single extender, you introduce four (4!) bad segments (cable split1 -> receptacle - > plug -> cable split2 into the transmission link. As result, horrible reflections are coming in all directions along the line, and signal deteriorates beyond acceptable. This is why USB specifications explicitly disallows any passive extenders. If you put more extenders, things will go really bad.
The above considerations apply for cables with two junctions, at host side, and device side. Active extenders usually use "captive cable", which is soldered directly at device end, and thus eliminates at least a pair of connector elements and one cable split, so captive cables can do a bit better in terms of signal integrity, and can have longer functional cables.
In short, making a USB cable out of several mechanically interchangeable segments is a really bad idea.