Had this problem for awhile now. Spent some time troubleshooting with Google Support and they ended up saying "it's a Microsoft issue, work with them".
The main problem is that the Google Drive desktop application does not want to launch on my Windows 7 PC. I have no problem on my work laptop running Windows 7.
I can download the application from Google themselves or ninite.com and it will add all the relevant icons to my desktop. Double clicking the Drive icon does not launch the initial configuration window, the tray icon does not appear and there is no "googledrivesync.exe" process in taskman.
I've done what a few people suggested and tried launching with -vv for extra logging, installed procmon.exe to check for unusual errors in the process and made sure that it was not blocked in Windows Firewall.
The only time I've gotten it to work was launching in a temporary Administrator account I created, though it had all the same permissions that my current account has.
Anyone else seen this before? I found a bunch of posts on Google's product community forums but there never seemed to be a confirmed resolution and most thread were 2-4 years old.
I know I'm being pretty vague so ask away if there is additional information you need.