You can do that manually. Navigate to the following locations to find the Start Menu shortcuts:
Your Start Menu - %AppData%\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs
All users Start Menu - %ProgramData%\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs
Once you arrive in those folders, you can select any shortcut to easily copy/paste to your desktop.
Right-click on the Acrobat Reader DC entry on your Start Menu, select More, and then Open File Location.
This will open the folder containing the shortcuts. You can now copy this shortcut to your desktop.
The Windows 10 Start Menu is built "dynamically" from content in a few locations, and is no longer just a visual representation of a specific set of folders as it has been in past versions of Windows. This means that the items in the Start Menu are not the actual shortcut files themselves, but are more like representations of the shortcuts.
For most programs the shortcuts actually still exist, you just have to get to the actual shortcut to copy it to your desktop or elsewhere.