I am doing a physics project that involve measuring the temperature of the CPU. As some of you may know, I need to know the specific heat capacity of the material that is being measured upon (aluminium, silicon or air, most likely in this case). Therefore I'd appreciate it, if someone could share their knowledge about the CPU temperature probe.
The answer would depend on what CPU you're talking about. Where and how many sensors are required is up to the manufacturer.
With Intel's x86 chips they tend to have one thermal sensor per core and one for the whole package at a minimum. So a quad core has at least five. These are embedded in the wafer itself so you won't be able to practically locate them even after delidding but you can use the SHC value of doped silicon as an approximation of the heat capacity of the unit.