I have seen the exact same problem. All the Linux computers on the subnet can ping each other, but the Windows 10 computer can only ping the gateway, not any of the hosts on the subnet.
I have Windows 10 computer attached by Ethernet to a switch/router. The router is subnet
192.168.123.0/255.255.255.0 and DHCP assigns the address
192.168.123.241 to the Windows 10 computer.
The Windows 10 computer can ping and ARP from
192.168.123.1 (the gateway of the router). But it cannot ping and ARP hosts on
192.168.123.7 can see and ping each other, but they cannot ping
All hosts have the same MAC address for ARP entry
192.168.123.1 (the gateway).
I'd upgraded my router software, and in doing so the built-in Ethernet switch was no longer forwarding between ports. My other two hosts were on a different switch and could communicate with each other, and they could communicate with the router because the router's switch was delivering packets to the destination but not forwarding between Ethernet ports.
The solution was to reconfigure OpenWRT/LEDE to set all switch ports to the same VLAN so that traffic would be forwarded between ports.