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Without working SMB 1 (e.g. by disabling it as suggested here), browsing for computers with shares using Windows Explorer will not work any longer (as expected). They are still available by using \\COMPUTER\... which, I guess, involves a DNS lookup, but they are not listed automatically.

  • What graphical or non-graphical (cmd, PowerShell) ways are there on Windows 10 to list remote machines which offer shares?
  • Does running with or without a Domain change the available options?
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It is true. When you remove the SMB1 feature, the computer browser from 1996, which worked based on NetBIOS, also goes. Devices that still appear in Network are UPnP-based or (if the condition is right) Bonjour-based.

With Active Directory in place, however, a "Search Active Directory" button is added to the Explorer toolbar. You can search Active Directory for domain-joined computers. (This should very well replace the network browser.) Additionally, shared folders can be published to Active Directory directly. Those registered shared folders show up in your search. Finally, you can deploy shortcuts and mapped drives to the network shares.

Bonus information: You said "They are still available by using \\COMPUTER\... which, I guess, involves a DNS lookup [...]" Well, not necessarily. Windows has 7 different name resolution methods, including broadcast, WINS lookup, DNS lookup, HOSTS file and a couple of others that I don't remember right now.

  • It was kind of clear that the browser/NetBIOS is gone, but unclear whether there is a protocol or tool alternative to list those computers (apart from nmapping them or setting up AD). This is at least a partial answer which answers whether there would be some alternative when AD is involved. – Thomas Luzat Apr 25 '17 at 10:57
  • Regarding name lookups: HOSTS would work, too, but broadcasts would only occur if NetBIOS was still enabled (and even then most likely only if no WINS server is queried), or not? That's one of the advantages of getting rid of the old protocol: No more broadcasts. – Thomas Luzat Apr 25 '17 at 11:07
  • Don't run away with yourself just yet. You only uninstalled SMB1, not NetBT. Without NetBT, you have to say goodbye to HomeGroup and Workgroup as well and that hasn't happened yet. So, I am afraid broadcast-based name resolution hasn't gone anywhere. – user477799 Apr 25 '17 at 18:01
  • Oh, I remembered: LMHOSTS – user477799 Apr 25 '17 at 18:04

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