I want to enable Bitlocker on my Windows 10 computer, but I don't want to enable Secure Boot, since it interferes with other partitions.
If I enable Bitlocker without a TPM (enter password at boot), does that require me to have Secure Boot enabled?
Secure boot is part of a firmware standard specification (UEFI) that blocks untrusted operating systems from booting. It (debatably) secures the EFI partition which is read first during boot. No passwords are required.
Microsoft Bitlocker existed before UEFI and is typically stored on a Windows System or Recovery partition, so that indicates it is independent. It blocks operating systems from accessing certain volumes and needs password decryption.
No, BDE doesn't need Secure Boot or UEFI.
If you enable BDE without a TPM, you need to set as a protector, i.e. a usb dongle (usb drive). Then, you need everytime when you startup the system to put the usb drive in. You have to configure the BDE over domain group policies or local group policies. Look here: https://gpsearch.azurewebsites.net/#13640