I'm running the latest version 17.3.6799.0327 of OneDrive on three PCs, all with Windows 10 x64, but the option to pause syncing only appears on one of the machines when I right click on the icon. It's a basic and very useful option, but even after reinstalling OneDrive I'm unable to have this option visible on the other two machines. Completely baffled.
If all your Windows 10 installs are the same version and up-to-date then I'm surprised you're seeing it at all, as there is no Pause Sync anymore:
Basically, the easiest method is to Exit OneDrive (via the tray icon or alike), and then start it again when you want to start syncing again.