I had a similar problem. I'm running Linux Mint 18.1 x64 (based off 16.04 Xenial) and VirtualBox
5.0.32. I have a full/real version (not the IE tester version) of Windows 10 that was running fine in VB as installed from the ISO. This was version 1511 (build 10586).
I then tried to update to version 1703 (build 15063) and experienced exactly the same behaviour that you've described. The solution for me was to update the version of VirtualBox to
5.1.22, the latest at the time of writing.
5.0.32 was the latest available in the Ubuntu repository so I had to install the newer version from the VirtualBox apt repo as described at https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Linux_Downloads#Debian-basedLinuxdistributions:
Add the following line to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian yakkety contrib
According to your distribution, replace 'yakkety' by 'xenial',
'vivid', 'utopic', 'trusty', 'raring', 'quantal', 'precise', 'lucid',
'jessie', 'wheezy', or 'squeeze'. ... The Oracle public key for
apt-secure can be downloaded...and register[ed]:
wget -q https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox_2016.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
wget -q https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
To install VirtualBox, do
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-5.1
Note: Ubuntu/Debian users might want to install the
package...through the following command:
sudo apt-get install dkms
Once I updated VirtualBox, I performed the update in the guest and after restart I almost instantly saw the white dot spinner appear on the black screen with the cyan windows logo (that you've attached) as you'd expect.