The video in question may be older. If it pre-dates the switch from flash to html5 video on youtube it may be in a video or audio format that is not ideal for playing from a computer.
It's important to note that you can't know the video format from the extension of the file. MP4 is a container format capable of containing many different video and audio formats. WebM is the same. MKV takes that to infinity and beyond (afaik there are literally no limits on what MKV can contain other than it must be a data stream of some kind or text).
You might want to get ahold of Mediainfo (it's probably in your package manager). This will let you see what video/audio formats are being used.
EDIT: Accounting for the fact that something is different between your computer and the other, there are a couple possibilities. FFmpeg on the other computer could have been compiled with additional features. Not all features of FFmpeg are compiled by default... and it would be up to the maintainer for the exact binary release of the FFmpeg package used on each computer as to what additional features would or would not be compiled into the binaries. This also goes for additional patches that might have been applied to it. Even on windows there are a number of different binary version of FFmpeg that might be being used.
The same could be true of youtube-dl itself. It could also be the result of different versions of python being installed or different python packages with different maintainers being installed (since youtube-dl is a python application).
It could be that either or both are missing optional dependencies on one machine that the other has.
I mean there are a lot of possibilities.
It's also worth noting that the files shown in the two logs are not the same one. It might be the same video, but each is downloading different files. YouTube serves different files based on selected quality/detected connection speed.