I am aware that many people have this problem, but none of them seem to have the same details as me. I am attempting to create a live USB with persistance for Kali Linux (32-bit). I have followed the necessary steps:
- Installed the ISO file from kali.org
- Verified the sha256sum of the ISO file
- Used GParted to format my drive to FAT32
- Used GParted to create a persistence (ext4) partition
sudo dd if=/home/arctic_hen7/Downloads/kali-linux-2017.2-i386.iso of=/dev/sdb1 bs=4Mto extract the contents of the ISO file to my USB
This is when I noticed that after I went back into GParted to close it, the filesystem of the Kali Live partition (not the persistance) had become unknown (and a red exclamation mark sign appeared next to the partition name). Also, when I went into the persistence partition from Nautilus, it had a lost+found directory. I tried booting it like this (after adjusting my BIOS settings), but I was presented with a black screen and a flashing white underscore cursor in the top-left corner of the screen. I waited, but it did not boot. I then booted back into Ubuntu and tried the whole process again (but with the same ISO file), but I also deleted the lost+found directory in the persistance partition. I tried booting but was met with the same issue. My system specifications:
Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (alongside Windows Vista (which I never use))
Vaio VGN-Z46GD (quite old)
Intel Centrino 2
Insyde H2O BIOS
I hope this helps.
Edit: I have managed to fix the problem and now have Kali Linux 32-bit with persistence on a 32GB USB flash drive. Please see my answer below for the details.