Micro-B cables are not unique in terms of how interchangeable they are. So I'll leave this answer generic because it also applies to other USB 3 cables, as well.
As a practical matter, you will probably be able to interchange your USB cables and make a USB connection. Any USB data cable that has the right connectors should make a standard USB connection with any device. But, there are some exceptions and limitations.
Some cables are charge-only cables. These can't be used for data purposes. They may work to charge a device other than what it was bundled with, but they aren't reliably interchangeable for rapid charging at higher currents. They don't comply with USB specs but some manufacturers supply them.
Some devices are designed for rapid charging with a USB data cable at currents higher than what is available with a standard USB connection. These require handshaking with a high-output charging port via a special cable to negotiate the higher current. The supplied cable may have heavier conductors and more going on inside the connector than just standard wire connections.
The rapid charge data cable can be used like a standard USB cable, so the cable that came with a rapid-chargeable tablet can be used with an external hard drive. However, a standard USB cable, like the one that came with a hard drive, won't support rapid charging, even if connecting a rapid charge device to a high-output port. A standard USB cable will make the USB data connection and charge a rapid-chargeable device, but at a much lower current and over a much longer time.
Just FYI, a high-output charging port on a computer or power adapter won't fry a standard USB device if you use a standard USB cable to connect the device. The high port output is only available through handshaking, which doesn't take place with a standard cable. Also, while the port may be capable of delivering higher current, the device will draw only what it needs and has negotiated for.
Presence of a USB logo isn't a reliable way to know if the cable is totally compliant with the specs, or which specs it complies with.
So I would employ a modified version Ronald Reagan's strategy of "trust but verify." Just verify.
A more in-depth discussion of the "why" and "how" is pretty well covered by a couple of articles: