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How does keyboard layout (switched in Windows for e.g. by Alt+Shift) relates to character encoding? How to determine what charset encoding is currently used in Windows? How to know what charset encoding we'll be used if i switch keyboard layout (for e.g. from PL to EN)?

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How does keyboard layout (switched in Windows for e.g. by Alt+Shift) relates to character encoding?

It doesn't.

How to determine what charset encoding is currently used in Windows?

The OS and most modern programs always use Unicode. (For byte representation, Windows uses UTF-16, but other programs often use UTF-8... it's Unicode either way.)

Older programs (using "ANSI" mode) use an encoding apropriate for whatever encoding was sent in Regional Settings, under "Encoding used by non-Unicode programs". Normally it requires a reboot to be changed (though there's an AppCompat tool to do it in a better way). Luckily you almost never need to change it.

Of course, programs like text editors can still make their own decisions on how to write files – e.g. even Notepad has a character encoding dropdown in its "Save as..." window.

Many other formats such as .docx always use Unicode.

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