With the traditional spinning disks diagnostics is rather easy. If you suspect a drive to be faulty, you can check the SMART values, run a SMART extended test and a
badblocks -wsv test. If all three tests show no error, the drive is probably/usually fine.
What should we do in case of SSDs or modern NVMe drives?
Obviously, SMART is still a good idea, but what if it complets without error? Is running
badblocks -wsv on a flash-based memory device a good idea?
Are there other options?
Also, if using
badblocks what options are suitable? Should one use the "erase block size" of the SSD?
This question is similar to Can I prove that an SSD is broken? But the answers there are from 2013. We have seen several generations of flash technologies since then. - Also, while they suggest
badblocks, I am missing a discussion on weather this is a good idea at all. Ultimatley, some flash memories do not like it to be written to a 100%. Also, how do we tell the SSD afterwards which sectors are free (again)?
How to fix bad blocks on SSD is also not satisfying.
How safe is it to run CHKDSK on an SSD? discusses only the impact of
I could not find other resources that deal with this problem.