Your profile is corrupted. I think you did go to the right support page. I followed the same steps with two caveats:
A. I exited Skype for Business, which seems to hold the *.ost files hostage until you do
B. I removed every profile, unlike the suggestion in the support page that says not to remove the primary profile.
These are the steps I followed:
- Exit Outlook and Skype for Business and backup your old data files in C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Outlook in case there might be reason to return and make the effort to try to salvage anything.
- In Control Panel, click or double-click Mail.
- Click Show Profiles.
- In the Mail dialog box, select the profile that you want to remove, and then click Remove.
- The following warning message is displayed:
Careful, if you remove this profile, offline cached contents for its accounts will be deleted. Learn how to make a backup of the offline .ost files for the accounts. Do you want to continue?
- Click Yes to continue.
- Repeat step 4 and step 5 for all other Outlook profiles.
- Start Outlook.
The above is borrowed from https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/3197025/your-mailbox-has-been-temporarily-moved-to-microsoft-exchange-server-m, which suggests that you don't delete the user's primary profile. However, I deleted it too and went and recreated it because it seemed to be the one at fault in the first place. Setup from scratch after step 8 above was merely a two-step process where I simply,
- Named my new profile as "Outlook" and clicked OK.
- Inserted my e-mail address and then just clicked Connect.