Mostly irrelevant(?) backstory
My Windows 10 laptop was working fine before its bimonthly restart. I had closed most programs, except Firefox, an hour or two before
shutdown /s /t 00. There was a pending File Menu Tools post-install restart which I had ignored, hibernating at least twice in the meantime. I closed Firefox before the shutdown. I then left the laptop for about 15 minutes.
I have no backups. As soon as my laptop is fixed, I promise I'll make one if the data's still there. (Edit: I'm making a disk image using
dd on a Ubuntu disk at the moment.)
Upon turning my computer back on, I was greeted with a BSOD. I didn't pay attention to the stop code. I left it too long, and was greeted to an Automatic Repair loading screen. I left this to load for several minutes before it occurred to me that the machine was powering on and off much more than expected.
It turns out that the machine is stuck in a loop, attempting to load Windows before being greeted with a
NTFS FILE SYSTEM BSOD. It then tried to fix itself, flashing a
conhost window(?) (EDIT:
winpeshl.exe, italics, Windows 7 sans Aero-style title bar) for a split second, then a 1-3 second pause, then a
FAT FILE SYSTEM BSOD.
I don't know whether the computer applied Windows Updates in the time I was gone. I'm hoping it's just a corrupt kernel.
What's wrong, and how do I fix it?