What's the term for 'windows' like the following? Anything more technical than 'window'?
Please see the titled question. Some examples of such windows: How do I remove and forestall all these 'SyncMaster's?, 1st window in How to manually type (or copy & paste) the file location, instead of accessing it by clicking?, Why does my microphone's volume still automatically decrease?
A modal dialog is a window that forces the user to interact with it before they can go back to using the parent application. A great example of this would be a prompt for saving, or the "open file" dialog.
Generally if you want to maximize a window that does not have a button for it, you can try + Up. If the window itself can actually be maximized, it will be then.