Continuation of my SSD Problems as mentioned in SSD not recognized by BIOS after hibernation or shutdown
Namely that the resolution of my SSD depends on me not booting in UEFI mode. If I enable the settings for secure boot, my drive disappears from BIOS.
The only way for me to access the drive is through the steps of disabling secure boot, setting the BIOS to Legacy mode, which will allow it to detect the drive, and then re-enable secure boot and reboot (without changing mode to UEFI).
However, while I managed to reach Grub and accessed by Ubuntu partition on the first time I did this, it apparently has corrupted the EFI files since I was unable to access either windows boot manager or Grub afterwards.
Turns out Grub was less broken than previously thought. By disabling secure boot but enabling EFI I was able to boot to Grub and start Ubuntu again. Windows is still completely unbootable at this point, requiring a recovery device.
Machine: Gigabyte P55v6
OS: Windows 10/Ubuntu 16.04
BIOS: American Megatrends FB04
SSD: LITEON CV3-8D256