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When configuring a router you specifically set the channel that it will broadcast at to avoid congestion. For example channel 36. How does a device know it is supposed to connect on that channel? You never set the preferred channel on the client device.

Does the client just receive on every channel of the 5 GHz band or does something else occur?

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    The client scans the available channels. This assumes you have not configured the client to scan only a particular channel (its very unusual to ever do this). Jun 21, 2018 at 18:48

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The access point (AP) periodically sends beacons which identify the network. When connecting, the client listens for a while for beacons on each possible channel, one at a time, and then selects the channel that the AP it wants to connect to is transmitting on. The beacons are sent several times per second, there aren't all that many channels in the band, and the receiver may be able to look at several adjacent channels are the same time, so this process usually doesn't take very long.

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