This command will fill the file with 0xff in Linux.

dd if=/dev/zero ibs=1k count=100 | tr "\000" "\377" >paddedFile.bin

When I run it in OSX, the results are different.

$ dd if=/dev/zero ibs=1k count=100 | tr "\000" "\377" >paddedFile.bin
100+0 records in
200+0 records out
102400 bytes transferred in 0.000781 secs (131104008 bytes/sec)
$ hexdump -C paddedFile.bin
00000000  c3 bf c3 bf c3 bf c3 bf  c3 bf c3 bf c3 bf c3 bf  

What's going on here?


Straight to the point.

It all hinges on the LANG or LC_ALL value set in your terminal session when you run tr. Linux has them set to C while macOS has it set to something like en_US.UTF-8. Of course that en_US could be some other local language such as en_UK (UK English) but the point is the [something].UTF-8 setting instead of plain ASCII via C is what is causing this.

More details.

Seems that tr in macOS is converting the 0xff to the UTF8 equivalent of c3bf when it gets instead of the pure ASCII 0xff. This is explained here on this Apple community support thread here:

Linux doesn't handle Unicode in the Terminal like the Mac does. If you set the "LANG" environment variable to "C" (as it probably is on Linux), it will work. Otherwise, all those high-order bits are going to get interpreted as Unicode characters.

And using that LANG tip works! Just do the following; tested personally by me just now on macOS 10.13.6 (High Sierra).

First, make note of what the existing LANG value is like this:

echo $LANG

The output I see is:


Now set the LANG value to C like this:


And run that command again:

dd if=/dev/zero ibs=1k count=100 | tr "\000" "\377" >paddedFile.bin

Now the hexdump values should look like this:

hexdump -C paddedFile.bin
00000000  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |................|

To reset the LANG value just close that terminal session or just run this command:


Or—as pointed out in the comments—you can just set the LANG value straight in the command line options before calling tr like this:

dd if=/dev/zero ibs=1k count=100 | LANG=C tr "\000" "\377" >paddedFile.bin

And you can even use LC_ALL instead of LANG because LANG is just derived from LC_ALL anyway like this:

dd if=/dev/zero ibs=1k count=100 | LC_ALL=C tr "\000" "\377" >paddedFile.bin
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  • 4
    "Linux has that set to C while macOS has it set to something like en_US.UTF-8" -- I'm not sure this is the whole story. In my Kubuntu or Debian env | grep -E 'LANG|LC' returns LANG=pl_PL.UTF-8 only, so it's Unicode. Still the OP's original command yields 0xff out of the box. Could it be because trimplementation itself differs between Linux and Mac? – Kamil Maciorowski Aug 16 '18 at 5:27
  • 1
    Regarding my doubt, I have found this answer which says "many implementations of tr, including the one in GNU coreutils, don't support multibyte encodings". Seems legit. In my Debian tr 'Ł' 'L' translates Ł to LL (Ł is a Polish letter, I use LANG=pl_PL.UTF-8), so it apparently treats its first argument as two characters. – Kamil Maciorowski Aug 16 '18 at 5:46
  • 3
    Yes, it has to be done by tr. It would make negative sense for such conversion to happen when writing to file. – user1686 Aug 16 '18 at 5:47
  • It's not really hard to test that it's not about the locale setting. With LANG=en_US.UTF-8 (on a Linux system that has that locale generated), printf ' ' | tr ' ' '\377' | hexdump -C plainly shows ff. – ilkkachu Aug 16 '18 at 9:03
  • And, actually, changing LANG might not be enough. The relevant locale setting is LC_CTYPE, and the value it gets comes first from LC_ALL, then LC_CTYPE, then LANG, with the first one set taking effect (that's the same for all other locale settings). So, if LC_CTYPE is set, changing LANG doesn't do anything in this case. To reliably override it, you'd need to set LC_ALL. Also, it's enough to set it just for tr, i.e. ... | LC_ALL=C tr ' ' '\377' | ... – ilkkachu Aug 16 '18 at 9:08

The issue is that GNU tr, which you have on Linux, doesn't really have a concept of multibyte characters, but instead works byte at a time.

The tr man page and online documentation speak of characters, but that's a bit of a simplification. The TODO file in the source code package mentions this item (picked from coreutils 8.30):

Adapt tools like wc, tr, fmt, etc. (most of the textutils) to be multibyte aware. The problem is that I want to avoid duplicating significant blocks of logic, yet I also want to incur only minimal (preferably 'no') cost when operating in single-byte mode.

On a Linux system—even with a UTF-8 locale (en_US.UTF-8)—GNU tr replaces an ä as two "characters" (the UTF-8 representation of ä has two bytes):

linux$ echo 'ä' | tr 'ä' 'x'

In the same vein, mixing an ä and an ö produces funny results, since their UTF-8 representations share a common byte:

linux$ echo 'ö' | tr ä x

Or the other way around (the x doesn't apply here):

linux$ echo ab | tr ab äx

And in your case, GNU tr takes the \377 as a raw byte value.

The tr on Mac is different, it knows the concept of multibyte characters and acts accordingly:

mac$ echo 'ä' | tr ä x

mac$ echo ab | tr ab äx

The UTF-8 representation of the character with numerical value 0377 (U+00ff) is the two bytes c3 bf, so that's what you get.

The easy way to have tr work byte-by-byte is to have it use the C locale, instead of a UTF-8 locale. This gives the funny behavior again:

$ echo 'ä' | LC_ALL=C tr 'ä' 'x'

And in your case, you can use:

... | LC_ALL=C tr "\000" "\377"

Or you could use something like Perl to generate those \xff bytes:

perl -e 'printf "\377" x 1000 for 1..100'
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