Such a list is impossible, as unlike Windows events (which have a static list of IDs, a specific template for each ID, and only fill in parameters) syslog messages are simply free-form text.
To enumerate possible messages even for a single program would require searching its source code for
syslog() calls, which might be made indirectly through custom functions, through various libraries (e.g. log4net) or not use syslog at all (e.g. various programs use systemd-journal functions). So that requires specific knowledge about each program's source code, and cannot be easily automated at the scale of an entire Linux distribution – which it would have to be, as new versions may have different messages.
(The systemd journal does have optional message IDs and 'catalog' files containing descriptions and translations. It's still opt-in and the usage is rare.)
Really even the Windows event message lists only cover the standard OS components and perhaps things like MS Office. They cannot possibly cover all messages that third-party software might log, which might install its own catalogs and event IDs, or even submit freeform messages.