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I have linux and W10 installed on separate disks. Here is my dual-boot setting:

NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 111,8G  0 disk            # SSD
├─sda1   8:1    0   550M  0 part /boot/efi
└─sda2   8:2    0 111,3G  0 part /
sdb      8:16   0 465,8G  0 disk
├─sdb1   8:17   0    16G  0 part [SWAP]     # HDD
├─sdb2   8:18   0    10G  0 part /tmp
├─sdb3   8:19   0    10G  0 part /var
└─sdb4   8:20   0 429,8G  0 part /home
sdc      8:32   0 931,5G  0 disk            # HDD, dedicated to W10 only
├─sdc1   8:33   0    16M  0 part            # Windows ESP, I guess
└─sdc2   8:34   0 931,5G  0 part            # Windows filesystem

I used to be able to either launch linux or W10, choosing from grub or the BIOS (UEFI), until I recently reinstalled linux on the two first drives.
The third one, HDD, has not been touched during this reinstall.
However, my mistake was that W10 was actually hibernating.

Now:

  • my BIOS/UEFI does not list W10 anymore in the boot options
    (even though it does see the 3 disks)
  • my grub does not list W10 anymore in the boot options
    (I have been trying to fix this with no success because..)
  • I cannot mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt anymore to perform an os-prober or an update-grub because

    mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdc1,
    missing codepage or helper program, or other error

  • even though I can mount /dev/sdc2 /mnt just fine, with the warning

    Windows is hibernated, refused to mount. The disk contains an unclean file system (0, 0). Metadata kept in Windows cache, refused to mount. Falling back to read-only mount because the NTFS partition is in an unsafe state. Please resume and shutdown Windows fully (no hibernation or fast restarting.)

I understand that this due to hibernation leaving W10 ESP in a unconsistent state. However, I have no way to boot W10 anymore and making it actually shut down.

What is the best way I could get this fixed?
Why is it that my BIOS/UEFI cannot list W10 anymore?
Can linux somehow fix W10 ESP?
Can linux somehow make W10 actually "shutdown" without W10 booting?
Can grub be fixed manually or with utility softwares like boot-repair in this case?
Do I have to use a W10 recovery disk? Will this break my linux boot config?
Do I have to reinstall W10?
Am I missing better solutions?

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