I've got an Outlook 2016 install to an Exchange (2013) server which refuses to show anything in my inbox. If I use Exchange webmail, all my items are there sitting in the inbox. However, they do not show in the Outlook inbox. I know Outlook is working (in the general case) because I can send mail from it and it does go where it is supposed to... No clue even where to begin troubleshooting. Been reading MS tech notes, but nothing seems to cover this particular set of symptoms.
Unknown as to the particular piece that is the exact solution, but I did Windows updates on and rebooted our Exchange server last night. Then this morning I did a Mail delete profile, followed by starting Outlook and telling it to do Exchange in manual mode. Despite selecting manual mode I was never given the chance to select any options. However, upon startup it displayed the inbox as it should.