The ability to set lightness and darkness levels depends on the printer.
For example, my Canon printer has this setting for manual color adjustment :
Other printers may have other adjustments or none.
As regarding the differences between colors after scan, this is caused by
difference of equipment and by the fact that the number of colors for the
computer is limited.
Colors are usually represented by 24-bit pixels, where each of the components of
Red, Green and Blue takes 8 bits. This gives only 256 shades for each component,
which is less than what a trained eye can do.
Some printers support 48-bit scanning, which also produces a special kind of image.
With 48-bit printing the number of 256 jumps to 65536 and is much more precise.
The following examples come from the article
What's The Difference Between Scanning 24 Bit vs. 48 Bit?
and are zoomed-in to show the difference :
So what happens is that the scanner gets the colors just a little bit wrong,
because it needs to assign each color one component out of only 256,
then the printer needs to convert this color to a combination,
for an ink-jet printer, of sprinkled ink dots over the paper.
You may add here the quality of the paper, where the printer assumes that it is
pure white, while it's close to real white only for the highest-quality paper,
more used for printing photos than documents.
The whole process is extremely imprecise and the results may be off by a bit
even for high-end printers.
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Why don't my monitor colors match the printed colors?.