You ask this…
Is it possible to boot from this hard drive on my Windows laptop?
The answer is simply stated as this…
No, you cannot boot a macOS system on a non-Apple laptop.
First, macOS will not support non-Apple hardware. Second, Windows is not as easy to boot off of a USB drive than macOS or Linux is. No matter how you cut this, you can’t do what you describe at all.
The best you can do is connect the drive to your Windows laptop and perhaps access your files on the Windows 10 laptop. But this depends on how the macOS hard drive was formatted and if it was even encrypted.
I am not an expert on doing such a thing—mounting a macOS hard drive on a Windows system—but if you cannot read the contents directly I am going to assume there is some tool (possibly FUSE related, HFS+ for Windows or hfsexplorer) that can mount the drive in at least read only mode. This is your best bet to get files off of that hard drive.
The next option is—of course—connecting the drive to a system running macOS. But assuming you didn’t mention that it doesn’t seem like a viable option for you at this point. But just mentioning the obvious just in case.