A pair of RAM was installed in a Windows 7 x64 \ 16.04 Ubuntu dual-boot Dell Optiplex 320 box. Upgrade from 2GB => 4GB

I realize that usable space on a hard drive is typically ~10% less than the stated size, however

  1. Isn't 3.22 GB usable a bit on the low side?
  2. What is a reasonable expectation?
  3. How to test if RAM is defective?
  4. Is this low reading a Windows peculiarity?
  5. Can I conclude that both 2GB modules are physically installed correctly?

If the gap is because of the GPU + Windows taking memory, how can I measure that the 4GB was actually delivered by the RAM Modules?

marked as duplicate by Mokubai Dec 24 '18 at 21:39

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  • That is a machine from 2006, a generation that regularly had limitations and prodded the boundary of 4GB limitations. All of the pieces of hardware in the system take a chunk out of the addressable space on such a machine. If you have a dedicated graphics card then it will mask out RAM for the rest of the system. – Mokubai Dec 24 '18 at 21:39

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