This is one of those I have seen it happen often enough to know it happens issues but is intermittent enough to lose sight of it and impossible to "prove".
I am in a big corporate environment using MS Access 2013 on Windows 7.
I have seen cases where something writes data in Access and then the old version is read indicating a function write / read race condition. This is typically some sort of VBA code performing the operations. The last case involved a local ACCDB file (database file on my laptop).
I am looking to turn over stones to find the root cause but have to deal with the big corporate IT. My gut is telling me there is a man in the middle security product to blame but I can't find anything anywhere to prove anything largely because I am not an admin of any kind. Hopefully this question is not too general for this forum.