When I open a bash terminal in OSX and then type Alt + F to got back one word it instead opens the find dialog? Many of the other key-bindings have similar problems. How can I change this?
You have the ctrl button one to the left of alt (option), this does everything in the terminal just like it would on a regular qwerty keyboard(windows, linux).
You can also use ctrl shortcut in the rest of your osx applications for a lot the same functions like end of line ctrl-f and beginning of line ctrl-a.
A very similar question was asked on stackoverflow and it has some really excellent answers already.