My question is about CPU architecture and the instruction set extension TSX-NI.
For which usage scenario is it useful, and especially is it useful for web development or running virtual machines and Docker?
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In my opinion, TSX-NI does not provide an advantage for your listed use cases.
It's defined in Wikipedia as:
Transactional Synchronization Extensions (TSX-NI) is an extension to the x86 instruction set architecture (ISA) that adds hardware transactional memory support, speeding up execution of multi-threaded software through lock elision.
Unless you are running a product whose process creates a large number of threads, or a large number of processes that use the same shared memory, a faster method of achieving exclusive access to memory areas will not speed up the software.
In addition, to use TSX-NI, a software product must be specially programmed for it, which is mostly true for specialized applications such as multi-user database engines that are not in your scenario.
I believe that the software you have described will not benefit from this technology, but this is your decision. I just don't think that TSX-NI should be an important factor in your decision.