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I have two ISO files, I call it

Windows 10 ISO #1.iso
Windows 10 ISO #2.iso

The checksums calculated with different tools show two different values for this two *.iso files.
The two textfiles show the different checksums for #1 and #2 (calculated with Nirsofts HashMyFiles.exe)
The two dialog boxes from 7-Zip confirm the different checksums for #1 and #2: enter image description here

How can it be that a tool like KDiff3 doesn't find any difference in the included files and directories and shows everything in "green" as identical? enter image description here

How can it be that the checksums for the two *.ISO files #1 and #2 mounted with Windows 10 file explorer show the IDENTICAL SHA values? enter image description here

In this case: Would you say the ISO are identical or not?

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    If check sums are not equal then by definition the files are guaranteed to not be the same. If check sums are equal then there is a high chance that the files are the same, but not 100% guarantee. Now for if the files are "close enough" to function, that is an entirely different question – Eric F Mar 25 at 14:53
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    Windows Explorer only shows file contents of the image. It does not show boot “sectors” or anything the like. – Daniel B Mar 25 at 14:59
  • "Would you say the ISO are identical or not?" - You should be comparing the hash provided by Microsoft generated by the same tool Microsoft used to calculate the hash they provided. It is not possible to make a determination using the information you provided. – Ramhound Mar 25 at 15:03
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    Also, according to MSDN, 2F8910CE2CFAF61F094DFD49FE87AC004A6200AF is the “real” file. – Daniel B Mar 25 at 15:04
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    They are not publicly available, that’s correct. However, because I have an active MSDN subscription, I can still view them. – Daniel B Mar 25 at 15:10
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How can it be that a tool like KDiff3 doesn't find any difference in the included files and directories and shows everything in "green" as identical?

The application is only looking at the contents of the image. You are not comparing the boot sector of the image.

Would you say the ISO are identical or not?

It is not possible to make this determination. You should be comparing the checksum calculated by certutil and compare it to the checksum provided by Microsoft. If you used the Media Creation Tool to download the ISO you are comparing, the checksum will be different, this is intentional behavior by Microsoft.

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