Yes, laptops and desktops are designed to throttle on several computational aspects:
Thermal throttling :
Reduce CPU speed due to heat, which is why all modern CPUs
and motherboards incorporate abundant thermal sensors, with matching support
in the operating system.
This behavior can be modified by settings in the operating system by
controlling fans speed,
but a modern CPU will also regulate itself.
Power limit throttling :
This is limiting CPU speed to its rated
Thermal design power (TDP).
This is the maximum amount of heat generated by a computer chip or component
that the cooling system in the computer is designed to dissipate under any workload.
This is usually preset by the manufacturer (and usually quite conservatively)
and computed for when running what the manufacturer considers are
This can usually be modified by applications from the manufacturer.
CPU throttling or
Dynamic frequency scaling :
This is adjusting the frequency of the CPU automatically "on the fly" depending
on the actual needs. This is partly done algorithmically and automatically
by the firmware burnt into the CPU controller and cannot be modified,
and also partly done by modifiable operating system settings.
For your question:
if laptops are designed so they are not able to work at full power and need to throttle or it should not commonly happen if everything is ok
This heavily depends on the design of the computer.
For example, Thermal throttling can be avoided by good enough cooling systems,
which are usually optional on high-end computers or can be added by knowledgeable
Power throttling can be avoided by the motherboard supplying enough power to have
all cores running at maximum speed. The usual case is that in order to put
some cores into Turbo Boost, power needs to be reduced to the other cores.
Dynamic frequency scaling can be modified by overclocking the CPU using specialized
applications, sometimes supplied by the manufacturer.
One well-known application in this area is the free
"a small application designed to monitor for and correct the three main types of CPU throttling that are being used on many laptop computers",
but which can do many other adjustments (including defining the limits of
throttling, both up and down).
For more information about ThrottleStop, see the article
How to Lower Temperatures, Stop Throttling, and Increase Battery Life: The ThrottleStop Guide (2017).
For Intel CPUs, Intel also supplies a tuning and monitoring utility,
Intel® Extreme Tuning Utility (Intel® XTU),
described as :
"Intel XTU is a Windows-based performance-tuning software that enables novice and experienced enthusiasts to overclock, monitor, and stress a system".