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Some types of files can have more than one type of metadata. For instance, a single JPEG file could have Exif, IPTC, and XMP metadata.

Exiftool seems to be the most powerful metadata extraction and manipulation tool irregardless of platform.

I see Exiftool has many options and supports all the file types and all the metadata types I'm interested in.

But I can't find any combination of options that would list, for each file, which types of metadata the file has, but not to dump all the metadata fields.

Is there a way to pass Exiftool the path to a file and get back a list of which types of metadata it has?

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You can use the -api Filter option to suppress the listing of the metadata fields with a command like
exiftool -G1 -a -s2 -api "Filter=s/.*//" /path/to/files/

Note that this doesn't suppress the extraction of the tags, it simply uses a regex substitution to clear the results. The end result would be similar to @rwat128 results without the actual data being listed. I also used the -s2 option to make the output more compact, resulting in no spaces between the name and the colon, with nothing after the colon.

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To list out what types of metadata the file has, I use this:

exiftool -time:all -a -G0:1 -s  C:\Users\Brubs\Downloads\test

where you can replace "C:\Users\Brubs\Downloads\test" with the direct absolute path to the file or folder.

The output should look like this:

======== C:/Users/Brubs/Downloads/test/moo - face.jpg
[File:System]   FileModifyDate                  : 2019:05:25 12:29:15-04:00
[File:System]   FileAccessDate                  : 2019:05:25 12:29:15-04:00
[File:System]   FileCreateDate                  : 2019:05:25 12:29:13-04:00
[EXIF:IFD0]     ModifyDate                      : 2014:08:12 00:15:26
[EXIF:ExifIFD]  DateTimeOriginal                : 2014:08:09 15:12:48
[EXIF:ExifIFD]  CreateDate                      : 2014:08:09 15:12:48
[IPTC]          DateCreated                     : 2014:08:09
[IPTC]          TimeCreated                     : 15:12:48+00:00
[XMP:XMP-xmp]   CreateDate                      : 2014:08:09 15:12:48
[XMP:XMP-xmp]   ModifyDate                      : 2014:08:12 00:15:26-04:00
[XMP:XMP-xmp]   MetadataDate                    : 2014:08:12 00:15:26-04:00
[XMP:XMP-photoshop] DateCreated                 : 2014:08:09 15:12:48
[XMP:XMP-xmpMM] HistoryWhen                     : 2014:08:11 11:25:56-04:00, 2014:08:11 11:25:56-04:00, 2014:08:12 00:02:36-04:00, 2014:08:12 00:06:02-04:00, 2014:08:12 00:09:34-04:00, 2014:08:12 00:15:26-04:00, 2014:08:12 00:15:26-04:00
[ICC_Profile:ICC-header] ProfileDateTime        : 1998:02:09 06:49:00
[Composite]     DateTimeCreated                 : 2014:08:09 15:12:48+00:00

======== C:/Users/Brubs/Downloads/test/n1246140036_30019422_9121.jpg
[File:System]   FileModifyDate                  : 2019:06:11 17:04:40-04:00
[File:System]   FileAccessDate                  : 2019:06:11 17:04:40-04:00
[File:System]   FileCreateDate                  : 2019:05:26 06:29:06-04:00
    1 directories scanned
    2 image files read

As you can see, some files have only very basic [File:System] tags, whereas others have more like [EXIF] and [IPTC] and [XMP] tags. I hope this is helpful.

Source: https://exiftool.org/faq.html#Q24

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