I am trying too do following command under entware-alternative:

#adduser hu
#addgroup jk
#usermod -aG jk hu    # add "hu" to group "jk"
#mkdir tf
#chmod 770 tf
#chgrp jk  tf
#su hu
$cd tf
$touch aaa

And it success.

My OS is Android, it doesn't have /etc/passwd and /etc/groups.

And it doesn't have pam_unix.so either.

Even though entware created /opt/etc/passwd and /opt/etc/groups. How linux know group "jk" has user "hu"?

How does linux know these information are stored in /opt/etc/passwd and /opt/etc/groups?

Bash and openssh-server can recognize my username correctly, I guess it were recompiled to read /opt/etc/passwd instead of /etc/passwd.

But file operation are managed by kernel I guess, how does kernel know this uid is under that gid?

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