I dual-booted my laptop with Ubuntu 17 and Windows 10 one year back.
After one year, my laptop battery backup has reduced to 40 minutes.
Does having multiple OSes on a laptop harm the battery or reduce its life?
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Does having multiple OS on laptop harms the battery or reduces it's life?
As @Akina has mentioned in the comments, no. Having multiple OS on your laptop has nothing to do with battery usage. The laptop hardware uses the battery, not the OS. And on top of that, only one OS is active at a time.
The only noticeable difference you can see is the drivers' quality on Linux. In some of my cases Linux was using more battery than Windows which was caused by low quality drivers. And then again, this isn't a deciding factor for when a battery wears out. Batteries get worn out mostly by age.
Short answer: No.
Long answer: The number of operating systems present in a computer has nothing to do with the battery lifespan. Even if you have a ton of operating systems, only one can run at a time. Therefore, the battery would work the same way it does in a single-boot computer. Batteries naturally wear out with time due to a ton of factors which include but are not limited to:
I hope this explanation helps.
My immediate reaction is similar to the other answers, that having any number of OS'es on a given system would not affect its battery life.
But, as touched upon by the issue about poor drivers, there is the perspective that part of battery life is battery maintenance. That maintenance may very well be controlled by software -- and there you may have (wildly) different quality across operating systems.
In the olden days when ThinkPads were still firmly IBM hardware (and battery technology was different), we had some very well-working (Windows!) "ThinkVantage" drivers that you could ask to either (a) ensure that the battery charge was always optimal from a battery-life point of view, or to (b) ensure that you had the maximum charge available before undocking (these two are to some degree conflicting goals, for reasons @PeterCordes mentions). These days, I have not seen any laptop-management software on par with what the ThinkVantage suite offered back then (even its modern namesake has diminished significantly in quality).
Yes. Heat kills batteries, and sometimes the operating system is largely responsible for minimizing heat.
Running a new operating system has the potential to cause some harm if the complete thermal management solution is not supported. When software mitigations to reduce temperature cannot be used due to partial or missing driver support for heat generating devices, then the hardware and firmware safeties are all that is available. These hardware based safeties are to prevent danger to the user, and may be inadequate to prevent damage to the hardware (especially the battery) over long term use.
More and more we are seeing factory cooling systems that are inadequate for system power levels with software power management and throttling being relied upon to stay cool (see the i9 macbook pro for a premium example), so as time goes on this is increasingly likely. Another particularly good example of operating system ensured safety is the daisy sound chip in early arm chromebooks, which without safe limits in place, can physically melt the attached speakers when used with a non-chromeos system.