If you didn't recover the deleted temporary files right away (see solution to recover previous versions from temp files below), restoring your previous version most likely won't be possible unless previously:
you activated Windows 10's File History which requires at least two drives (e.g. see here), then and only then you can recover a previous versions (as you already discovered)
you were using onedrive to save the excel file, then you can recover (e.g. see here)
you have done some type of backup which you can use to restore the file from
Since the file and it's data in most cases has been overwritten unfortunately there are no other (easy) file recover options. However you might be lucky since Excel produces several temporary files.
Solution to recover previous versions from temp files
However, you might be able to recover it is through your (deleted) temporary files Excel produced. That is assuming the data hasn't been overwritten by the OS for other/new files - to minimize that chance, this is important: you should stop using the drive your file is stored on (or if possible stop using the computer altogether). If it's still there you might be able to restore your old file from there.
Note, depending on the Excel version, there are several types of temporary files Excel creates in several locations which are deleted after you save your file and/or close Excel:
one that carry the same name then your original file with a
~$ in the beginning (the one that can see being created when you open it)
a second type that you can only see when you recover deleted files on the drive where your excel file is located. The file might have a different name/extension but file size will be exactly the one your previous version had (since it actually is your previous file). The name might be something like
F545F41.tmp (where the meta data of the deleted file, like filename, date etc. is still intact) or
002322.xlsx (where the file's metadata has been deleted, in this case the filename) depending on various factors mainly on which excel file was saved last. These files are created and deleted due to the process how Excel saves files: instead of modifying your original file, Office it creates a new file and renames and deletes the old one containing the old version (tested with Office 365 V1909). The tmp file (if it exists) is your last version of the excelfile, the other files are all sorts of previous versions (might be the last version or even older versions).
third there are additional temp files that are saved in other directories used for storing temp files (depending on your windows and office/excel version). With luck those files haven't been deleted yet, otherwise you need to recover them as well. Here are some more information about the Excel AutoRecover Process that creates some of those files.
For recovery of deleted files you can use any decent recovery tool that does a "deep scan" of your drive e.g. Recuva. Depending on the size of your drive this might take a long time. Once you recovered your temp files you can open the second type you can open directly with excel (since this actually is your original file). The other types (especially the temp files that haven't been deleted) you need to "recover" a second time, with one of those instructions for example this superuser one or this external one.
As a side note
For tmp files with the name still intact eg.
F545F41.tmp you can find the correct file/(name) using the USN file journal that is implemented within NTFS, assuming it was turned on. To create a log of the file journal you can use CMD (in admin mode):
fsutil usn readjournal [drive] > [logfile destination]
e.g. if your excel file was on
drive C: and you want the log to be saved as
D:\USNlog.txt use this line:
fsutil usn readjournal c: > D:\USNlog.txt
There you can retrace through the
File-ID which files were deleted/renamed etc.