Obviously it's because the enclosure reports the Logical Block Size to be 4KiB while the actual LBS of the disk is 512 bytes. (For the record it doesn't matter if it is 512e or 512n regarding the issue; in either case the LBS is 512 bytes.)
The fact that the partition entry (of 0xffffffff blocks, the maximum one can represents) in the "Protective MBR" is being recognized as ~16TiB indicates the case. (For the record, Windows uses 0xffffffff as the size of the "protective partition" regardless of the actual size of the drive.)
While it might have "properly grouped" the 512-byte blocks to "another layer" of logical blocks of 4096 bytes (which explains why the total size is correct in your second screenshot), it doesn't mean the content that was written to the disk with LBS of 512 bytes "in mind" can be read properly with the given situation.
For example, Windows will try to read the GPT from the actual ninth logical block, while it is on the actual second logical block. The fact that you are seeing the "protective partition" indicates the case (GPT not found).
The following simulates the situation:
[tom@archlinux ~]$ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdc
Disk /dev/sdc: 238.49 GiB, 256060514304 bytes, 500118192 sectors
Disk model: id State Disk
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 33553920 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: 90C9AA0F-22B4-426F-B347-14412F4E447E
Device Start End Sectors Size Type
/dev/sdc1 2048 1085439 1083392 529M Windows recovery environment
/dev/sdc2 1085440 1288191 202752 99M EFI System
/dev/sdc3 1288192 1320959 32768 16M Microsoft reserved
/dev/sdc4 1320960 500117503 498796544 237.9G Microsoft basic data
[tom@archlinux ~]$ sudo fdisk -b 4096 -l /dev/sdc
Disk /dev/sdc: 238.49 GiB, 256060514304 bytes, 62514774 sectors
Disk model: id State Disk
Units: sectors of 1 * 4096 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 33553920 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sdc1 1 4294967295 4294967295 16T ee GPT
TL;DR, just don't do anything to the disk with the enclosure, as it's only gonna mess up the data. Get another one that doesn't do this sort of "4KiB emulation".
P.S. You can check an enclosure with PowerShell cmdlets. You will see the logical sector size being 4096 bytes with one that does the aforementioned "emulation":
It does not have anything to do with the capacity of your drive, USB version the enclosure is of, but its response to a SCSI READ CAPACITY command (i.e. how its firmware is written).