If this is just 1 specific spreadsheet, then you could select the columns (once), then go to "Data" > "Group".
Once grouped, there will be a line (showing which columns are grouped) with a - which you can click to hide the entire group. Once hidden, the button will change to +, which will unhide the entire group.
There will also be 1 (hide all groups) and 2 (unhide 1st-level groups) buttons. You can even have groups within groups, which will create 2nd or 3rd level groups (adding 3 and 4 to the control scheme)
Once you save the file, groups will remain intact if you reopen it or send it to a colleague.
Shift + Alt + → is the shortcut to Group selected Rows / Columns, Shift + Alt + ← to Ungroup
If you have a cell in a Group selected, then Alt, A, H will hide it, and Alt, A, J will unhide it. Alt, A, U, C will remove all Outline Groups