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Host is Windows 10, guest is Peppermint 10.

TL;DR - Guest VM using a specific network adapter has semi-functioning network access, websites work but apt/ssh don't work. If I set the host to use that network adapter, it has no problem using ssh or apt, and if I set the VM to use NAT it also has no issue using ssh or apt.

Background:

I'm attempting to use a separate network from the host on the guest VM, such that they do not interact. On the Windows 10 host there are 3 adapters visible, onboard LAN, WiFi, and the wired USB adapter for tethering to an Android phone, as shown below

Windows Network Connections

In VirtualBox, I've set the network connection as "Bridged Adapter" and chosen the "Remote NDIS based..." device, which works fine for accessing regular websites (i.e., I'm writing this question from the VM). Checking the external IP address reported in the VM is different from that of the host, but also not the same as what's reported by the device tethering it (e.g. phone says 172.58.170.217, VM says 172.58.170.147, host says 74.115.202.130). The phone+VM are both on 172.58.170.xxx so I assume that's on the side of the network the phone creates, which is fine as long as it's not passing through the host's network.

enp0s3: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.42.181  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.42.255
        inet6 fe80::9e08:c9c1:fdec:1574  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 08:00:27:13:01:53  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4577  bytes 3038797 (3.0 MB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 5572  bytes 698005 (698.0 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device interrupt 19  base 0xd020 

If I set the network to NAT in the VirtualBox settings, apt and ssh work fine - however, that leads to the VM sharing the IP of the host.

Problem:

Everything works as expected with the exception of trying to update through apt, and trying to ssh to another remote machine (VPS). I can SSH from the phone to the VPS just fine, but not from the VM that's sharing the same connection. I can ping the addresses shown as unreachable by apt with 0% packet loss.

W: Failed to fetch http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/dists/bionic/InRelease
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.canonical.com:80 (2001:67c:1562::1c). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.canonical.com:80 (2001:67c:1360:8c01::1b). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.canonical.com:80 (2001:67c:1360:8c01::16). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Could not connect to archive.canonical.com:80 (91.189.92.191), connection timed out
Could not connect to archive.canonical.com:80 (91.189.92.150), connection timed out
Could not connect to archive.canonical.com:80 (91.189.91.15), connection timed out
W: Failed to fetch http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/bionic-security/InRelease
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.ubuntu.com:80 (2001:67c:1560:8001::14). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.ubuntu.com:80 (2001:67c:1360:8001::21). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.ubuntu.com:80 (2001:67c:1560:8001::11). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Cannot initiate the connection to archive.ubuntu.com:80 (2001:67c:1360:8001::17). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
W: Failed to fetch http://ppa.launchpad.net/peppermintos/p10-release/ubuntu/dists/bionic/InRelease
Cannot initiate the connection to ppa.launchpad.net:80 (2001:67c:1560:8008::15). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
Could not connect to ppa.launchpad.net:80 (91.189.95.83), connection timed out
W: Failed to fetch http://ppa.launchpad.net/peppermintos/p10-respin/ubuntu/dists/bionic/InRelease
Cannot initiate the connection to ppa.launchpad.net:80 (2001:67c:1560:8008::15). - connect (101: Network is unreachable)
W: Some index files failed to download. They have been ignored, or old ones used instead.

With SSH, any connections fail with "Connection timed out" (ran with -vvv, no other errors or messages besides resolving, reading config, then connecting).

I'm assuming it's definitely a configuration/security-related problem somewhere, but the fact that everything else seems to work fine is why I'm completely stumped. Thorough searching led me to check that the MAC address of the bridged network is the same in VBox and the guest, and that IPv6 may also be a problem but the addresses don't seem to be IPv6 so I'm not sure that applies - most other threads seem to be having no connection with a bridged adapter, which doesn't appear to be the problem in my case. I'm sure other things might be broken as well, but apt and SSH are the only ones I've encountered and I honestly can't find any indication as to what they're doing that everything else isn't.

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Resolve my issue by instead just passing it as a USB device - recognized immediately as a tethered network and is fully functional.

Still genuinely curious as to what the problem was for future reference, but it does seem to only occur with Windows 10 as a host for me - I tried to replicate it with the same VM on the same host computer, except booting into Ubuntu as the host OS, and it works as expected, so at the very least I can narrow the problem down to the OS and not the hardware or network.

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