You can increment the inputVolume variable in your code like this (change + to - to decrement):
set inputVolume to inputVolume + 10
Alternatively, you can use a single-line script to increment volume without having to assign a variable:
set volume input volume ((input volume of (get volume settings)) + 10)
To assign a keystroke, you can use Automator to create a Quick Action that appears in the Services menu and executes the one-liner above:
- Launch Automator from the Applications folder.
- Create a New Document and select Quick Action as the document type.
- In the "Workflow receives" dropdown, select "no input" in "any application".
- From the Actions list, find and double-click Run AppleScript.
- In the AppleScript window that appears on the right, replace the code that's there with the one-liner above.
- Save the quick action – I named mine "Increase Mic Volume", which now appears in the Services submenu of the application menu.
- From the Services menu, select Services Preferences.
- Find the entry for Increase Mic Volume and click "none" in the right column to assign a keyboard shortcut. Make sure you choose a unique key combination that's not likely to be in use by the apps you use.
Repeat the same steps for Decrease Mic Volume.
You can confirm it's working by opening the Sound preference pane in System Preferences and going to the Input tab, then watch what happens as you press your assigned keyboard shortcuts.
The Apple documentation for input volume is here.