Most programs1 use the PKCS#12 file as only an import/export container.
When you import the file, its contents are processed as individual certificates or private keys, and they're stored in whatever format the program uses. The original PKCS#12 file and its password are then discarded.
Chrome generally uses the OS native storage where available – you can open the Certificate Manager (certmgr.msc) on Windows, Keychain on macOS, and see your certificates there.
On Linux/Unix systems, Chrome uses the NSS database format (same format as Firefox but different location); it can be accessed with
certutil -d ~/.pki/nssdb.
1 (Well, Java 10+ also directly uses the same PKCS#12 format for its 'keystore' files, but that's somewhat of an exception and unrelated to Chrome anyway.)