Most USB-C docks require support for DisplayPort on the USB-C port for video, as you have likely already discovered. There's a company called DisplayLink that makes USB video chips that are compatible with Windows and macOS computers. You mentioned USB-C and HDMI so I'll link to their product page for that. (I hope this works.)
USB was not made for displaying high resolution video and so this is a bit of a "hack". There's going to be performance limits since these chips are not graphics processing units. To get the video through USB means slowing down the refresh, compression, and other tricks that faster interfaces like Thunderbolt would not have to do. I have not used these things myself but I know people that have used them with mixed results.
One issue is that a shared desktop on multiple displays can act a bit odd. This isn't a limitation with DisplayLink, it's just how Windows handles multiple display adapters. If you have two displays, each connected to different display adapters, then Windows treats them almost like two different desktops. Application windows cannot span the border between the displays. If both (or all) displays are connected to one DisplayLink adapter then this issue is not present.
How Windows acts to two displays on one adapter depends on the drivers, the adapters, and the settings. Some people like to see the two displays act like one big display, as in the Windows bar spans both screens. Some people prefer to have one primary screen with the Windows bar and other screens to "hang off to the side". Again, how the DisplayLink adapter acts will depend on the chip, driver, and settings.
If all you have for ports on your laptop is USB then as far as I know DisplayLink is your only option. There's a number of these DisplayLink chips in a variety of docks, and packaged into these docks by a number of vendors, so don't let this single source discourage you too much. They appear to be well supported.
Any performance limits are going to be in how USB works, the OS handles the display, and the horsepower of your computer. One more time, these are not high performance video accelerators for gaming or video editing. These are intended for office productivity, web surfing, and the like. I emphasize this because I've seen people disappointed in them, and only because they set their expectations high. These DisplayLink docks cost much more than docks that just split out the video signal from the USB-C connection. This is because they are more complicated. Even then they are cheaper than those external GPU docks that the gamers buy. Those are even more complicated.
If someone is aware of another option then I'd be interested as well.