By default, only the most recently used plan as well as "balanced" are available. How do I display all 3 default power plans? I'd like to avoid third party programs if possible.
Battery Care installs malware along with it. You can opt out (although not obviously at first glance). I would discourage users from installing software that bundles malware. The author gets barely enough to buy a beer per year from that stuff and it only serves as a distribution point for malware and spyware. It needs to end.
Here's an alternative that doesn't bundle any malware.
Shameless plug: Power Buddy
Power Buddy is a very lightweight system tray application that allows you to switch between all the defined power plans.
No malware. No junk.
Full Disclosure: I am the author of this project.
Windows 7 has no natural settings to show more than 2 power plans in the system tray. However, you can create shortcuts or hotkeys to switch between your power plans. How-to Geek has a nice article about how to do that: Create a Shortcut or Hotkey to Switch Power Plans.
One of the users in a forum having the same question as you says that this solution is perfect; but each time he ran the shortcut, the command prompt popped up for a second. To prevent this he created a small script. You can see the related post here.
There is also a Windows sidebar gadget which can do what you want. It's called Power Scheme and can be downloaded from this page.
Although you avoid 3rd party solutions, there is a tool called Power Plan Assistant for Windows® 7 which can do the job as well.
Just use the shortcut key WIN+X which will bring up the mobility center; then you may choose the power plan you want. very simple!!
Have you looked at Power Plan Assistant
Searching for 'show all 3 power plans in tray software'? Congratulations, you just have found a comprehensive solution. Power Plan Assistant for Windows 7 is an ultimate manual / automatic power plan switcher and a compact (yet very informative) system Power icon replacement. It's the multiple award-winning, the world's smartest power management tool. Blockquote
I'll throw in a late update to this, Power Scheme Switcher, under the MIT license with source code available from the same place. Built in C# on Visual Studio 2012.