Windows 10 itself doesn't come with a good DHCP server. It has a very minimal one, as part of the "Internet Connection Sharing" feature (still exists on Win10), but you can't really configure it in any way and I wouldn't recommend using it.
(That said, Windows Server editions have a fully featured DHCP server as an installable feature.)
It is possible to install and run third-party DHCP server software on Windows, and there are several free and commercial DHCP server apps available if you search.
Alternatively, the PC could run a virtual machine which provides DHCP services, e.g. regular Linux/BSD (or indeed even Windows Server) or specialized pfSense/RouterOS/etc. The primary requirement is that the VM must be directly bridged to the host's Ethernet connection. (I think all VM software has this mode.)
The DHCP server does not need to be on a router, as long as it correctly advertises where the router is (i.e. the correct "default gateway" parameter).