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Well, I am dealing with an HDD with some unreallocated bad sectors for the 2nd time (the first time was a dying HDD, but now this other HDD is just one with "caution" state according to SMART info and luckyly the amount of bad sector doesn't seem to be increasing from the first time).

After both of these scenarios, I could backup all my Gigabytes of files, but the thing is I am not 100% sure those files are not broken after the HDD is starting to have unrealocated bad sectors.

I just wonder if the files that are supposedly unaffected by bad sectors are in good state (files that didn't show up any error message when copying them).

I know HDD uses correction codes to determine data integrity, but how much can I trust in this?

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    so the first thing I'd try is to get those sectors reallocated. as John said, you use Chkdsk -r to do this. you will see the pending sector count go down, and the reallocated sector count go up. Note the Uncorrectable sector count before you begin though to see if any of the blocks were unrecoverable. It is time to backup and move off both of those disks, perhaps using a tool like DDRescue, which will try to recover as much data as possible when reading around disk errors. there are no guarantees in data recovery, but you can probably salvage most of your content. – Frank Thomas Mar 19 at 4:36
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You can try to repair bad sectors using the CHKDSK command. CHKDSK is part of Windows and is used to check the integrity of the disk and fix the logical errors found, including bad sectors.

However, bad sectors never get better (they get isolated), so I suggest you back up the drive and replace it.

I am not 100% sure those files are not broken after the HDD is starting to have unrealocated bad sectors.

NTFS will normally keep files intact so your backed up files are likely fine. Specifically, if you are able to read them, then they are good.

Run CHKDSK and see what it tells you.

There is no guarantee, so back up the files. They are most likely fine.

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