My issue was with blank Chrome shortcuts. I tried changing my default browser to IE in "Default Programs" control panel and IE's icons work. This is apparently part of an operating system bug that is unresolved. I tried uninstalling / reinstalling, resetting thumbnail.db and overriding file associations via the control panels, changing screen resolution, nothing worked. I Finally Googled "File association" thinking I might be able to hack a solution via the registry and found a Blog that talks about various possible solutions:
The last solution talks of a utility called "Types" that lets you assign file associations in an alternative fashion. I scrolled to the .url file extension and double clicked the file extension. (The program interface isn't very intuitive). This opens a 4 tabbed window, select the "Icon" tab and browse to Chrome.exe (at the bottom of this window there is a folder icon next to a text field that lets you navigate to your app folder):
%YourUserNameDir/AppData/Local/Google/Chrome/Application/ select chrome.exe
This will give you access to all of Chrome's icons, select the one you like and close the window, go see your desktop! I really like the big "g" icon it's nicer than the default Chrome logo.
I hope this helps!