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When I start Windows, my external USB hard disk does not appear at all: enter image description here

When I unplug and plug it in again, it appears normally and stays that way:

What I checked already is that Windows does a clean shutdown/start by uncheking the fast startup:

enter image description here

Unforunately that does not help. I also unchecked that Windows might power down this specific USB port:

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At last, I also deactivated selective energy saving for USB in the energy settings:

enter image description here

The USB hard disk also does not show up in Disk Management nor USB Tree Viewer nor the BIOS:

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Now I am running out of options what to do. Any ideas how I can make Windows recognize this hard disk right from the start?

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    You have done most of the troubleshooting by yourself. I also eager to know the answer. – Robert Jun 23 at 5:18
  • Have you done any other troubleshooting steps like trying a different USB port? Also, next time you start up the computer and the drive isn't showing up, run disk management and see if the drive is detected in there. I assume your drive is powered via USB? – NetServOps Jun 23 at 5:19
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    Just for curiosity sake, does the drive show up in your EFI firmware settings (aka BIOS) at boot without plug/unplug? This sounds more like a firmware bug to me than anything else. Also, before unplug/replug, try this tool and see what it shows. Bonus!! Es ist auf Deutsch! If the USB tool can't see it, windows can't either. – Señor CMasMas Jun 23 at 5:24
  • @NetServOps I have not tried a different USB port, I can do that. However, I had my previous USB disk at the very same USB (3) port... it does not get recognized in disk management either (see additional screenshot in the description)... yes, via USB – Cyman Jun 25 at 10:37
  • @SeñorCMasMas I'll check the BIOS next time I reboot. The disk does show as "not connected" with the USB Tree Viewer (added screenshot) – Cyman Jun 25 at 10:41
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I tried these two steps suggested (among many others) on https://www.online-tech-tips.com/computer-tips/usb-device-not-recognized/, and one (or both) of them solved my issue:

  1. After having replugged the USB device, I ejected it properly, disconnected it and connected it again
  2. I uninstalled all hidden USB devices

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