What I checked already is that Windows does a clean shutdown/start by uncheking the fast startup:
Unforunately that does not help. I also unchecked that Windows might power down this specific USB port:
At last, I also deactivated selective energy saving for USB in the energy settings:
The USB hard disk also does not show up in Disk Management nor USB Tree Viewer nor the BIOS:
Now I am running out of options what to do. Any ideas how I can make Windows recognize this hard disk right from the start?